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Geolog

Not quite a ‘geography blog’ but where we can keep you
in touch with the latest developments, courses etc.

30th March

Segregated London

London has always been a segregated city. East London has traditionally been the poor relation to west London, though that is slowly changing as London's centre of gravity shifts eastward, with the regeneration of Docklands and the Olympic Park. On a local scale, there have always been the rich and poor neighbourhoods within each borough. Hackney, with its large local authority housing estates set amidst up and coming, gentrified neighbourhoods, is a borough which is noticeably segregated. But, probably no part of London is more segregated than Tower Hamlets, with the regenerated area of Canary Wharf parachuted into some of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London, including Poplar, Millwall and Bow. No surprise that Tower Hamlets is London's most unequal borough.

Segregation also happens at an even smaller scale. Most new developments in London are required to provide a proportion of affordable accommodation amongst the, often, unaffordable accommodation. The aspiration of planners is for 30% affordable accommodation, though this is rarely achieved. It is no secret that many developers try to minimise the proportion of affordable accommodation and often segregate the privately owners or tenants from social (council) tenants. There may even be separate entrances - the so-called 'rich door' and 'poor door' syndrome.

This week came news of segregation being taken to new depths. A developer has been condemned over the segregation of rich and poor children in separate playgrounds on a multi-million-pound housing estate. The developer created a large grassy area for the children living in private homes while the children of social tenants had to make do with a small, bark-lined strip at the back of the block. From their apartment windows, the poor children are able to look down on other children playing on the grass, but are not allowed to join them. 

The development at the Baylis Old School complex is in Lambeth in south London. London's mayor, Sadiq Khan, said "Segregation has absolutely no place in London", though perhaps he hasn't walked around Tower Hamlets or Hackney recently! Lambeth Council gave permission in 2013 for 149 homes to be built on the site, on condition that 60 properties must be reserved for people unable to afford the private flats, which cost up to £615,000. Warwick Estates, which manages the private part of the development, confirmed that social tenants could not use the grassy area. They explained, "This is for a very good reason - their families do not contribute towards the service charges". Perhaps they should try explaining that to the children looking out of the window at other children having fun.

John


18th January

Oxbridge - here we come!

A news story yesterday caught my eye. It featured a state school in east London celebrating after 41 of its students - almost all of them from ethnic minority backgrounds - secured offers from either Oxford or Cambridge universities. Then I did a double take. The school was none other than Brampton Manor in Newham, where I began my teaching career almost forty years ago, working there with one of my UGEL colleagues. In those days it was a bog-standard comprehenisve school, but these days it is a high-flying academy. So, the question is, was it academisation that has brought about the transformation, or was it something else?

Brampton Manor is in East Ham, towards the south of Newham, bordering on the busy A13. Back in the late 1970s, this part of the borough was still predominantly white working class, unlike the north of the borough, which was already mainly Asian, with still a fairly large Afro-Caribbean population in those days. The nearby Royal Docks were still open, though on their last legs, and Newham still had manufacturing industries, which have since closed. There was little academic aspiration among the majority of the students I taught. Most of them probably hoped to follow their parents into similar occupations, though the opportunities were shrinking and unemployment rising.

These days the whole of Newham is multi-ethnic, including the southern part of the borough around Brampton Manor. In addition to the communities that were here in the late 1970s, we can now add Africans (including both west and east African countries), eastern (and western) Europeans and refugees from the Middle East, including Iraq, Iran and Syria. The group, noticeably absent from my days of teaching there, are the white working class who have moved out into Essex with the demise of the docks and manufacturing industry.

Many reasons have been put forward for the rising achievement of schools in London compared to the rest of the country. Among them are higher funding for schools in London, the school improvements brought about in the noughties by the London Challenge programme, the creation of academies (of which Brampton Manor is one) and the quality of London teachers. Each of these factors may have played a part but, to my mind, the outstanding reason for the rise in achievement is mainly due to the changing population and the higher aspirations of ethnic minority students, many of whose families came here in the hope of a good education.

The achievement at Brampton Manor is all the more remarkable in that half of the students who have had Oxbridge offers were on free school meals. The reason for the huge change in fortune of the school within the past forty years is best summed up in the words of the students themselves. Rama Rustom, whose family came to the UK as refugees from Syria, said "For me, this offer sets my family on a new path. In my culture, women are traditionally told to not pursue education. I'm trying to prove that girls can do it too." Victor Idowu will be the first in his family to go to university. He said, "This is something that I have wanted my whole life. It's made my family really proud".

John


10th January 2019

Take flight to Europe!

With 2019 being the year of Brexit and our departure date set for March 29th, taking flight to Europe might sound like sensible advice to some. But it's actually what more people are doing every year from London City Airport, in the heart of Docklands. The growth in the number of flights means the airport has become cramped and a £480 million expansion project has been started, to increase its capacity. It will be complete by 2022.

For those that don't know, City Airport is located on a strip of vacant land that lies between King George V and Royal Albert Docks in the Royal Docks that closed in 1980. It is 11km east of the City of London, but much closer to Canary Wharf. Given its location, it has become the airport of choice for business people who want a quick flight to Europe, often returning the same day. It is now London's fifth airport in terms of passenger numbers, after Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and Luton.

The airport first opened in 1987, with just 133,000 passengers that year, mostly business travellers. Over the years, as the runway was extended and jet aircraft introduced, the number of travellers has increased. More people began to use the airport to go on holiday or weekend breaks in Europe. By 2017 the number had grown to 4.5 million, with 50% of them holidaymakers. These days, as well as flights to Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Geneva, there are also flights to Ibiza, Malaga and Skiathos.

The plan for the airport expansion is to build a new deck in King George V Dock, resting on over a thousand steel piles driven into the ground beneath. This will create space for a new taxiway and additional stands for aircraft, meaning that greater use can be made of the existing runway. A new airport terminal will also be built, three times bigger than the existing one. It is expected that the number of passengers will grow by a further 2 million, with 30,000 extra flights a year.  Of course, there are objections, primarily from local residents and environmentalists. concerned about noise and the impact of flying on air quality in London.

In terms of the wider plan for transport in London, City Airport lies very close to the Corssrail route (see previous blog) but does not have a station of its own. It seems that Excel, now London's largest exhibition centre, located on the other side of the Royal Docks, won that contest. Presumably, it would have been too much to have two stations within about a mile of each other. The alternative for air passengers will either be to walk from the Crossrail station at Custom House or to take the Docklands Light Railway, which already serves the airport.

John


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